scharnhorst class battleship

[17] He was also reminded that, despite the allowances of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, the British had historically been sensitive about increases in main gun calibers aboard German capital ships. To accomplish this, the hull would need to be lengthened by 10 m (33 ft) to provide additional buoyancy and the electrical system would have to be overhauled. Scharnhorst rewards skill. Shell splinters started a fire in the ammunition magazine, which forced the Germans to flood both forward magazines to prevent an explosion. Heavy seas and the high speed with which the pair of battleships escaped caused them to ship large amounts of water forward. Five minutes after opening fire, one of Duke of York's 14 in (35.6 cm) shells struck Scharnhorst abreast of her forward gun turret. Discover (and save!) [31], On 21 November, Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, the light cruisers Köln and Leipzig, and several destroyers conducted a sweep between Iceland and the Faroe Islands; during the operation, the German ships encountered the British armed merchant cruiser HMS Rawalpindi; Scharnhorst sank the ship, but in the process sustained a hit from one of Rawalpindi's 152 mm guns. When used to engage surface targets, the guns had a maximum range of 17,700 m (19,357 yd) at an elevation of 45°. [42] Following the engagement, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau headed for Brest in occupied France; they arrived by 22 March. It was later found that the 44 kn speed caused the engine to overheat, and after this discovery, its use was discontinued. On the morning of 25 July, one of the escorting destroyers shot down a British patrol plane. [55] The second hit destroyed Scharnhorst's forward Seetakt radar. Extensive damage from shellfire and torpedoes is evident; the bow was blown off, presumably from a magazine explosion in the forward turrets, and lies in a tangled mass of steel some distance from the rest of the hull. Advancing the science and practice of nutrition implementation worldwide The engines were rated at 160,000 shaft horsepower (shp) at 265 revolutions per minute (rpm), and on trials produced up to 165,930 shp at 280 rpm. Survivors Picked Up by the Home Fleet From the Scharnhorst After Her Sinking on 26 December 1943, Being Taken Ashore. [13], Following the completion of repairs, Scharnhorst went into the Baltic Sea for gunnery training. The bars were constantly under a great deal of stress, due to normal bending forces in the hull. The strategic position following the damage to Scharnhorst was serious. Each plant consisted of four diesel generators and eight turbo-generators. It caused significant damage to the ship's propulsion system and slowed the ship to 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). The underwater protection could only stop a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead in these areas. On 8 March, however, poor weather grounded the British bombers, and so Scharnhorst and four destroyers were able to make the journey to Norway. General der Jagdflieger (General of Fighter Force) Adolf Galland directed Luftwaffe fighter and bomber forces (Operation Donnerkeil) during Cerberus. During the engagement, Scharnhorst fired 212 main battery shells. The ship emerged from the dockyard in October. Muzzle velocity for the AP shells was 890 meters per second (2,920 feet per second); the guns were expected to fire 300 rounds before enough wear had been incurred to warrant replacement. As Acasta sank, one of the 4 torpedoes she had fired hit Scharnhorst at 19:39. [56], Survivors from Scharnhorst debarking in Scapa Flow, By 10:00, Scharnhorst, using her 4–6 knot speed advantage, broke off the engagement and resumed searching for the convoy. The hits caused extensive flooding and slowed the ship to 12 kn (22 km/h; 14 mph). In early 1943, Scharnhorst joined the Bismarck-class battleship Tirpitz in Norway to interdict Allied convoys to the Soviet Union. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau participated in Operation Weserübung (April–June 1940), the German invasion of Norway. The third also failed to detonate. Scharnhorst Class Battlecruiser Cost Credits : 11.349.901 Trinium : 126.070 Xanion : 19.007 Ogonite : 95.822 Avorion : 541.305. Debates in Germany over the role and size of its navy continued through the 1920s, when increased naval shipbuilding in France and the Soviet Union prompted the Germans to begin drawing up designs for large capital ships. [28], Following the completion of repairs, Scharnhorst underwent trials in the Baltic before returning to Kiel in December 1940. The second 227 kg bomb fell forward of the rear main battery turret and penetrated the first two decks. The torpedoes slowed Scharnhorst to 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph), which allowed Duke of York to close to 9,100 m (10,000 yd). I would vote for that either way since it is the translation of the native German term Schlachtschiff, and IMO the native/original designation takes precedence, but the Google search further reinforces the case. The next day, a British corvette was discovered and sunk, along with the oil tanker Oil Pioneer. Repairs were quickly completed, and on 22 January 1941, the two ships, under the command of Admiral Günther Lütjens, left port for the North Atlantic. The failure of surface units to intercept and destroy a convoy in the Arctic on 31 December 1942 prompted Hitler to order all major surface units to be scrapped. The Scharnhorst class were the first capital ships, alternatively referred to as battlecruisers or battleships, built for the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) after World War I. Gneisenau was ordered as Ersatz Hessen as a replacement for the old pre-dreadnought Hessen, under the contract name "E." The Deutsche Werke in Kiel was awarded the contract, where the keel was laid on 6 May 1935. The guns were mounted in four Drh L. C/34 twin turrets and four MPL/35 pedestal mounts. [45] Another attempt to reach Norway was canceled under similar circumstances. [17], Scharnhorst, depicted in her 1943 configuration, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were 226 m (741 ft) long at the waterline; Scharnhorst was 234.9 m (771 ft) long overall, while Gneisenau had a slightly shorter overall length, at 229.8 m (754 ft). Admiral Wilhelm Marschall, aboard Gneisenau, ordered Scharnhorst to pick up survivors. Turrets "B" and "C" were to be removed and transferred to Norway to serve as coastal defence guns. The convoy was spotted again two days later, and it was determined that the course was definitively toward the Soviet Union. Two air attacks followed, but anti-aircraft fire from Scharnhorst and her escorts drove them both back. [27], The underwater side protection had numerous faults, however. Two days later, the German flotilla intercepted the British armed merchant cruiser Rawalpindi. Work was completed by September, and the ship conducted further training in the Baltic. L. C/31 twin mounts amidships, which allowed depression to −8° and elevation to 80°. Scharnhorst and several destroyers sortied from Norway to attack a convoy; the Germans were instead intercepted by British naval patrols. Belfast picked up Scharnhorst on radar at 08:40; forty minutes later lookouts on Sheffield spotted the ship, at a distance of 11,000 m (12,000 yd). It was connected to the lower portion of the sloped deck, at an angle of 10°; two riveted angled bars held it in place. Scharnhorst demands to be driven like a battleship, but her guns thrive when used as heavy cruiser guns. However, for a concise but authoritative summary of the design history and careers of the major surface ships it is difficult to beat a series of six volumes written by Gerhard Koop and illustrated by Klaus-Peter Schmolke. The four diesel generators were divided into pairs: two provided 150 kilowatts each and two supplied 300 kW each. The ship was now fighting with only two-thirds of her main battery. [33] They scored five hits in an almost straight line on the starboard side, parallel to the centerline. The two ships encountered another convoy, escorted by the battleship Malaya, on 8 March. The joints with the torpedo bulkhead were weakened enough to cause leaking. In the span of five minutes, Gneisenau hit Renown twice, but sustained one 15" and two 4.5" hits in return. The only effective weapon at the disposal of the Germans in Norway was Scharnhorst—Tirpitz was badly damaged, and the four remaining heavy cruisers were committed to the Baltic. With the rudder hard over, the ships lost over 50% speed and heeled over more than 10°. She was the lead ship of her class, which included one other ship, Gneisenau. [70], Coordinates: 72°16′N 28°41′E / 72.267°N 28.683°E / 72.267; 28.683, Scharnhorst-class battleship of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, encountered the British battlecruiser HMS, "How Germany's feared Scharnhorst ship was sunk in WWII", "The Sinking of the 'Scharnhorst', Wreck discovery", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in December 1943,, World War II shipwrecks in the Arctic Ocean, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 14:58. [41] On 8 March, Scharnhorst spotted another convoy, but it too had battleship protection, in the form of HMS Malaya. A third try on 10 February terminated when Scharnhorst ran aground while trying to avoid collision with a U-boat. The Scharnhorst class was a class of German battleships (or battlecruisers) built immediately prior to World War II.The first capital ships of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, it comprised two vessels: Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. This includes the Royal Navy site [The Second World War 1939-1945] Philip Baird Shearer 13:18, 20 Dec 2004 (UTC) The Kriegsmarine called them "Schlachtschiffe", not "Panzerschiffe". [19], The two ships left Wilhelmshaven on 4 June to return to Norway. The ice had been cleared by noon, permitting Scharnhorst's entrance to Wilhelmshaven. Reports of heavy activity in British airfields near the coast prompted the force to return to port, however. Half an hour later, muzzle flashes were observed, from what turned out to be the old battlecruiser HMS Renown which had been part of the cover for a British minelaying operation. The power outage disabled the emergency shut-off switches to the boilers and turbines, which could not be turned off until power was restored. [38] By 13:00, the ships had cleared the Strait of Dover; half an hour later, a flight of six Swordfish torpedo bombers, with Spitfire escort, attacked the Germans. Shortly before 12:25, Scharnhorst hit Norfolk twice with 28 cm shells. [68] A Polish salvage firm raised the wreck on 12 September 1951 and subsequently broke the ship up for scrap metal. Tirpitz Class Battleship. On the 8th, a serious internal explosion occurred in the aft auxiliary machinery space above the armor deck. [16], The construction of new D-class cruisers were canceled to make way for Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. At 12:41pm, Scharnhorst turned south at 22 knots, unknowingly, towards the British battleship Duke of York. These guns fired 45.3 kg (99.87 lb) shells at a rate of 6–8 per minute. Six 53.3 cm (21.0 in) above-water torpedo tubes, taken from the light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig, were installed in 1942. [44] The shock damaged the rotating parts of all of the ship's gun turrets, and three of the 15 cm turrets were seriously jammed. The rather small caliber of her main battery guns was her main drawback, but that was offset by her higher rate of fire. The Prinz Eugen had been seriously damaged by a bomb on 1 July. [6] They marked the beginning of German naval rearmament after the Treaty of Versailles. They were mounted in six Dop. On 13 June, Ark Royal launched fifteen Skua dive bombers; German fighters intercepted the attackers and shot eight of them down. Temporary repairs allowed Scharnhorst to return to 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph). The Scharnhorst class was the last traditional class of armored cruisers built by the Kaiserliche Marine.The class comprised two ships, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau.They were larger than the Roon-class cruisers that preceded them; the extra size was used primarily to increase the main armament of 21 cm (8.2 inch) guns from four to eight. [39] By 06:30, they had passed Cherbourg, at which point they were joined by a flotilla of torpedo boats. The ship weighed over 38,000 tons at full load, and although its standard crew number was 56 officers and 1613 enlisted men, it sailed about 60 officers and 1780 enlisted men during the war. [45], Aerial reconnaissance photograph of Scharnhorst in Kiel, after the "Channel Dash", In early 1942, the crews of Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen made preparations for Operation Cerberus, a daylight dash up the English Channel. They were the first class of German ships to be officially classified by the Kriegsmarine as Schlachtschiff (battleship). The ships had rear problems as well; their stern was also frequently "wet" and the ships were very slow entering a turn. Heavy winds caused significant structural damage that evening, and flooding contaminated a portion of Scharnhorst's fuel stores. Battleship Scharnhorst-class Wehrmacht Kriegsmarine (German Navy 1935-1945) Scharnhorst Scharnhorst and Gneisenau operated together for much of the early portion of World War II, including sorties into the Atlantic to raid British merchant shipping. [8], The underwater protection system was designed to withstand a direct hit from a 250 kg (550 lb) explosive warhead; British aerial torpedoes had smaller warheads than this, though their ship-launched weapons were more powerful. All three types of shells used the same propellant charges: an RPC/38 42.5 kg (93.7 lb) fore charge and an RPC/38 76.5 kg (168.6 lb) main charge. [31] Throughout the operation, Scharnhorst had difficulties with the superheater tubes in her boilers. The tests revealed that welded steel construction better withstood the impact of the 250 kg warhead than did riveted steel plates. A rather peculiar capital ship, Scharnhorst in World of Warships is officially a battleship, but frequently plays more like a battlecruiser. The following day a reconnaissance plane from RAF Coastal Command spotted the ship, and a raid by twelve Hudson bombers took place on 11 June. [68] British ships began searching for survivors, but were soon ordered away after just a few were pulled out of the water even though voices could still be heard calling for help from the darkness. Hitler wanted to follow this course so he would not be seen as overtly flaunting the Treaty of Versailles. While Scharnhorst was en route under heavy escort on 21 June, the British launched two air attacks, six Swordfish torpedo bombers in the first and nine Beaufort bombers in the second. The central portion of the belt was backed by 170 mm (6.7 in) thick shields. [21], Scharnhorst was powered by three Brown, Boveri, & Co geared steam turbines, while Gneisenau was equipped with three Germania geared turbines. They were pursued by the two fierce battleships, King George V and Rodney , but the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were too fast, and successfully evaded the British in a squall. At 4:20pm, the major British force lead by Duke of York made radar contact with Scharnhorst at 20 miles while the three cruisers Norfolk, Belfast, and Sheffield were in hot pursuit. Admiral Marschall detached Admiral Hipper and the four destroyers to refuel in Trondheim, while he would steam to the Harstad area. The Scharnhorst was the first battleship in the German Navy to utilize torpedo tubes, these … The 15 Halifaxes attacked Scharnhorst at her moorings. In early 1942, after repeated British bombing raids, the two ships made a daylight dash up the English Channel from occupied France to Germany. Plans to replace th… Hansel Class Heavy Destroyer. It was extremely strong amidships, but weakened on either end of the citadel. [2][3]1940 German postcard showing the Gneisenau & Scharnhorst sinking the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious on 8 June 1940The Scharnhorst class were the first capital ships, alternatively referred to as battlecruisers or battleships, built for the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) after World War I. We use 3D printed game pieces regularly to enhance the realism of our fleet and also to use as equipment upgrade paths during the game. Scharnhorst Survivors Land. However, it was decided to use superheated steam propulsion. This includes the Royal Navy site [The Second World War 1939-1945] Philip Baird Shearer 13:18, 20 Dec 2004 (UTC) The Scharnhorst and several destroyers sortied from Norway to attack a convoy, but British naval patrols intercepted the German force. [44] The ship listed at 8°, after having taken in between 1,520 long tons (1,700 short tons) and 3,050 long tons (3,420 short tons) of water. [17] Half an hour later, Scharnhorst's navigator spotted gun flashes from Renown firing at Gneisenau;[13] the Germans returned fire three minutes later. Boiler and turbine troubles kept the ship in Germany for the remainder of 1942. [13] In English language reference works they are sometimes referred to as battleships and sometimes as battlecruisers. The warships of the World War II era German Navy are among the most popular subject in naval history with an almost uncountable number of books devoted to them. German battleship Scharnhorst underway. A fast battleship of the King George V class, Duke of York easily outgunned Scharnhorst, and had better radar. [8] The slopes connected to the lower edge of the main belt, an arrangement referred to as the "turtle deck. These guns were not identical to the 28.3 cm SK C/28 mounted on the Deutschland-class Panzerschiffe as their barrel was reinforced and much longer. [2], Their anti-aircraft battery consisted of fourteen 10.5 cm C/33 L/65 guns, sixteen 3.7 cm L/83 guns, and between ten and twenty 2 cm guns. [38], At 23:00 on 11 February, Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen left Brest. Near-misses rained shell splinters down on Sheffield. [23] The two destroyers attempted to cover Glorious with smoke screens, but the German battleships could track the carrier with their radar. The ship reached Brest later that day and went into dry dock for repairs, which took 4 months. However, he did not realize that such "unsinkable" commerce raiders would provoke Great Britain more severely than 26,000-ton battlecruisers armed with 28.3 cm (11.1 inch) guns, which would be perceived as inferior to all the Royal Navy battleships and battlecruisers then in commission. The torpedoes were 7.186 m (23 ft 7 in) long and carried a 300 kg (661 lb) Hexanite warhead. The Scharnhorst class battleships were the first warships of the Kriegsmarine in construction of which new armour plates made of hard Wotan (Wotan Hart) and soft Wotan (Wotan weich) steel were widely used. Kn ( 22 km/h ; 9.2 mph ) nine destroyers conducted a training mission to Bear Island in Baltic... Not be seen as overtly flaunting the Treaty of Versailles with superior forces, but sustained one 15 and. First class of German sea lanes knocked out her electrical system for 20 minutes was. For about 30 minutes and nine destroyers conducted a training mission to Bear in. 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