long pulsed nd:yag laser hair removal


 MWFoster Five sessions at 4- to 6-week intervals were performed. To reduce epidermal energy absorption relative to follicular absorption, longer-wavelength lasers are best used. Twenty women with skin phototypes IV through VI and dark brown to black terminal hair on the face, axillae, or legs. Immediately before each treatment, hairs longer than 1 mm were shaved close to the skin using a safety razor. Epub 2020 Jan 18. Nanni Substantial hair reduction was seen after each of the 3 treatment sessions. Thus, only lasers emitting energy with wavelengths ranging from 630 to 1100 nm are potentially capable of irradiating the entire length of anagen hair follicles, which typically extend 2 to 5 mm into the dermis. The ClearScan Long Pulsed Nd:Yag laser is also useful for eliminating the appearance of redness and fine vessels on the skin and also helps with non-invasive rejuvenation of the face.  MHBell Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Khalkhal E, Razzaghi M, Rostami-Nejad M, Rezaei-Tavirani M, Heidari Beigvand H, Rezaei Tavirani M. J Lasers Med Sci.  MCDierickx Main Outcome Measures   PM Hair removal using topical suspension-assisted Q-switched Nd:YAG and long-pulsed alexandrite lasers: a comparative study.  S Alexandrite laser hair removal is safe for Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI. Long-pulsed (50-millisecond) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation can achieve rates of hair reduction equivalent to those of other long-pulsed red and infrared laser and intense pulsed-light systems. © 2021 American Medical Association. Specifically, none of the systems are able to produce consistent, absolutely predictable results, as follicular responses to laser irradiation vary considerably from patient to patient, from one anatomical site to another, and from one treatment time to another for any given individual. A mean fluence of 50 J/cm2 was used to treat axillary hair in 8 patients, whereas a mean fluence of 45 J/cm2 was used on the legs in 4 patients (Table 1). Methods The study design was a within‐patient, right‐left, assessor‐blinded, comparison of long‐pulsed Nd:YAG laser and IPL. (Figure 4). Epub 2008 Feb 6. 2008 Oct;144(10):1323-7. doi: 10.1001/archderm.144.10.1323. Ayatollahi A, Samadi A, Rajabi-Estarabadi A, Yadangi S, Nouri K, Firooz A. Parrish Both long-pulsed alexandrite and long-pulsed diode laser systems are effective in the treatment of unwanted hair, and they are more efficacious than Nd:YAG laser. Results  Five sessions at 4‐ to 6‐week intervals were performed. Conclusion  Destruction of large terminal hair follicles was evident with minimal inflammation, reduced numbers of hair shafts, and preservation of pilosebaceous glands at 6 months after the series of 3 laser treatments. Goldberg Long pulse 1064nm ND: YAG laser could heat the deep hair follicles while not damage the superficial skin tissue, so it's a best laser hair removal machine for dark skin, especially the type IV-VI. • Hair removal* • Skin tightening & firming • Skin rejuvenation • Large pore • Black head • Pigmented lesions* • Epidermal pigments • Vascular lesions Objective  2018 May 31;3(5):5896-5902. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b00040. Facial hair was treated with a mean fluence of 40 J/cm2 in 8 patients. Gold  WAAnderson The Lumen Laser Machine is for Laser Hair Removal in all Fitzpatrick skin types.  CCGrossman  VGLittler Very long-pulsed (20-200 ms) diode laser for hair removal on all skin types [abstract]. THE CLINICAL results achieved by laser hair-removal systems since 1995 constitute an impressive but essentially qualified success. Hair removal treatments by means of either a QS Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, or long-pulsed alexandrite laser were performed. The long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective method of long-term hair reduction in patients with darkly pigmented skin. Results: Nonrandomized before-after clinical and histological trial. Lasers Med Sci with different pulse structures. A series of 3 long-pulsed (50-millisecond) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatments at fluences ranging from 40 to 50 J/cm. The Chinese ZM-87 blinding laser weapon uses a laser of this type, though only 22 have been produced due to their prohibition by the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.North Korea is reported to have used one of these weapons against American helicopters in 2003. All Rights Reserved, Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography, Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience, Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment, Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, 2001;137(7):885-889. doi:10-1001/pubs.Arch Dermatol.-ISSN-0003-987x-137-7-dst00091. Combining two workhorse wavelengths (long-pulsed 755nm Alexandrite and 1064nm Nd:YAG) in one platform, you can remove pigmented lesions, unwanted hair…  S Long-term epilation using the EpiLight broad band, intense pulsed light hair removal system. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. A retrospective study of 805 consecutive laser-assisted hair removal treatments, conducted on 75 patients by means of either a long-pulsed Nd:YAG, a long-pulsed alexandrite, or a long-pulsed diode laser … Although technological advances of laser-assisted hair removal during the past 5 years have been highly gratifying, the rapidity of development has not been entirely without drawbacks. Axillary hair before treatment (A) and 1 month after first 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatment at 50 J/cm2 (B). The combination of wavelengths of a high-power 755nm Alexandrite laser and proven long-pulse 1064nm Nd:YAG laser not only allows for effective Hair Removal, but is also a solution for Epidermal Pigmented Lesions, Vascular Lesions and Cutera’s signature Laser Genesis Skin Revitalization procedure. Previous reports of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment in patients with dark skin phototypes have been limited by their short postoperative evaluations and/or limited treatment sessions but have substantiated its use in these individuals, nonetheless.17,18 Not surprisingly, the longer-pulse (millisecond) Nd:YAG system has been shown to be more effective in safely removing hair than has the Q-switched (nanosecond) Nd:YAG system, given its closer approximation to the target hair follicle's thermal relaxation time.19 It is likely that with equivalent fluences, shorter-pulse red and infrared laser systems can also permanently destroy hair follicles, albeit at the expense of the epidermis. But patients who have used this laser reported feeling more discomfort during the treatment process. Despite this monumental obstacle, most of the available lasers and intense light sources can achieve a marked delay in the regrowth of unwanted hair (typically 3-9 months), although longer delays have been observed.1-11 In addition, laser-assisted hair removal is associated with low treatment discomfort, and large body areas can be treated expeditiously, since follicles need not be targeted individually (as is the case with electrolysis).12,13 Paramount to the success and acceptability of lasers for epilation has been the substantial safety margin afforded by most systems, with transient and mild adverse effects being normal.14. © 2021 American Medical Association. With thick skin, it may become difficult to achieve adequate penetration of energy deep into the follicle. In patients with dark skin tones, however, epidermal energy absorption cannot be entirely avoided using any of the aforementioned systems. The choice of laser system used was based on each laser’s availability and working condition and randomly assigned rather than on …  MZimmo  NLAlster Histological evaluations were performed by a board-certified dermatopathologist unaware of the study protocol (C.M.W.). The occurrence of side effects was not significantly different between three laser systems. ACS Omega. Treatment parameters for Wart using long pulse Nd YAG laser .  FDovale National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error.  CAAlster  RR Permanent hair removal by normal-mode ruby laser. Strong dual cooling system - Skin Cooling System (SCS) and Contact Cooling System - provides less pain and less downtime. Adverse effects included mild to moderate treatment pain and rare occurrences of vesiculation and transient pigmentary alteration without fibrosis or scarring. In recent years, various light sources (lasers and others) have been developed for long-term epilation of unwanted hair. Corresponding author and reprints: Tina S. Alster, MD, 2311 M St NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037. A marked reduction in hair regrowth was noted after each of the 3 treatment sessions and persisted for 12 months after the final treatment in all body locations studied (Figure 1and Figure 2). Dierickx The mean hair reduction was 42.4%, 65.6%, and 46.9% in Nd:YAG, alexandrite, and diode lasers, respectively.  RR Damage to hair follicles by normal-mode ruby laser irradiation. The relatively high concentration of melanin in hair follicles compared with the epidermis in these patients ensures a high level of efficacy and target-specific energy absorption when pigment-specific lasers are used. Terms of Use| Three-millimeter skin punch biopsy specimens were taken from within each of the 3 different treatment areas (face, axilla, and leg) at baseline, immediately after laser irradiation, and 1 and 6 months after the final laser treatment in 3 patients.  G Long-term epilation with long-pulsed neodimium:YAG laser. Prolonged hair loss was observed 12 months after the final laser treatment (70%-90% hair reduction). Histological tissue changes mirrored clinical response rates, with evidence of selective follicular injury without epidermal disruption. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/fullarticle/478428 The 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser can penetrate from 5 to 7 mm into the dermis, depths more than sufficient to reach the base of the bulb in most anatomical areas, and would thus be expected to produce sufficient follicular injury with less epidermal damage in patients with pigmented skin. Axillary hair demonstrated the most impressive hair reduction scores, averaging 2.8 after 1 treatment, 3.6 after 2 treatments, and 4.0 at 1 and 3 months, 3.8 at 6 months, and 3.5 at 12 months after the third treatment (Figure 3). Davoudi SM, Behnia F, Gorouhi F, Keshavarz S, Nassiri Kashani M, Rashighi Firoozabadi M, Firooz A. Arch Dermatol. J Dermatolog Treat. Grossman Background: The POLARIS 1064 Long Pulsed Nd:YAG LASER which can be safely and successfully used for the removal of hair on all skin types, Fitzpatrick scale I-VI, is the ideal solution for the busy clinic. Previous Artlcle: #15-3. Safe for All Skin Types Lask All Rights Reserved. The use of lasers with longer pulse durations (≤200 milliseconds) permit safe application of higher fluences to patients with darker skin tones, effectively heating the inner and outer root sheaths and the germinative zone without disrupting epidermal melanosomes (which typically respond to short [1-millisecond] pulses).20 Selective bulb and stem cell damage can thus be achieved with pulse durations much greater than the relaxation times of follicles (10-100 milliseconds). To determine the safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm in effecting long-term hair reduction in patients with darkly pigmented skin. Dermatol Ther. Conclusion:  M Intense pulsed light treatment of hirsutism: case reports of skin phototypes V and VI.  EFSuthamjariya Histological tissue changes mirrored clinical response rates, with evidence of selective follicular injury without epidermal disruption. 2020 Winter;11(1):91-97. doi: 10.15171/jlms.2020.15. Three consecutive, long-pulsed (50-millisecond) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatments were delivered on a monthly basis to the involved treatment areas by a single operator (T.S.A.).  JA New concepts in therapeutic photomedicine: photochemistry, optical targeting and the therapeutic window. Privacy Policy| Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below. The long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser may offer advantages over other systems because of its significant depth of penetration and minimal absorption by epidermal melanin, but ideal parameters need to be determined. A dermatopathologist reviewed unmarked histological specimens obtained at baseline, immediately after the initial laser treatment, and at 1 and 6 months after the final laser session.  TS Evaluation of temporary and permanent hair removal methods.  CAAlster  RG Topical suspension-assisted Q-switched Nd:YAG laser hair removal. All patients were evaluated at least 3 months after the last treatment, and their present conditions were compared with the 1st-day photographs. 404. To compare the efficacy and safety of laser hair removal using three different laser systems. Kim YO, Park SJ, Jung BY, Jang HS, Choi SK, Kim J, Kim S, Jung YC, Shin DS, Lee YS. doi:10-1001/pubs.Arch Dermatol.-ISSN-0003-987x-137-7-dst00091. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Objective: Johnson Lasers Med Sci.  JA Evaluation of a long-pulse Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for hair removal. It is mostly used for the patients with darkly pigmented skin.  AGalimberti to download free article PDFs, 2020 Mar;35(2):373-378. doi: 10.1007/s10103-019-02829-x.  CFarinelli One (C) and 6 (D) months after the third treatment, prolonged hair reduction is seen. CLARITY is a dual wavelength platform that effectively delivers a variety of parameters and incredibly fast treatments. Specifically, areas characterized by thinner skin (eg, axillae) were more responsive to laser treatment than those with thicker skin (eg, chin and legs), suggesting that skin thickness rather than hair growth cycle influences clinical outcomes.  MB  DASiegfried Marchell Battle A dermatopathologist reviewed unmarked histological specimens obtained at baseline, immediately after the initial laser treatment, and at 1 and 6 months after the final laser session. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:399– 2011;26:623–6. No topical cooling gel or anesthetic cream was used. Body location was further highlighted as an important consideration, as transient pigmentary alteration and vesiculation were limited to areas more prone to sun exposure (eg, face and legs, rather than axillae). Accepted for publication December 27, 2000. Garcia Advances in laser technology over the past several years have led to the development of numerous lasers for the treatment of unwanted hair. Epub 2019 Jul 5. Olsen Laser hair-removal systems are typically grouped into the following 3 categories on the basis of the type of laser or light source each uses: red-light systems (694-nm ruby), infrared-light systems (755-nm alexandrite, 800-nm diode, and 1064-nm Nd:YAG), and intense pulsed-light sources (590- to 1200-nm). Comparison of efficacy and safety of a novel 755-nm diode laser with conventional 755-nm alexandrite laser in reduction of axillary hairs. Zero indicates less than 25%; 1, 25% to 50%; 2, 51% to 75%; 3, 76% to 90%; and 4, greater than 90%. Axillary hair was substantially more responsive to laser irradiation than was hair located on the legs and face. Prolonged hair loss was observed 12 months after the final laser treatment (70%-90% hair reduction). In addition, the use of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser at high fluences can effectively treat patients with darker skin tones while producing few adverse posttreatment sequelae. A contact sapphire-tipped cooling device was used to protect the skin during laser irradiation with a rhomboid scanner that placed adjacent nonoverlapping 5-mm spots over the treatment area (Lyra; LaserScope, San Jose, Calif). Adverse effects (calculated from all 60 treatment sessions) were limited to mild to moderate treatment pain in 90% of treatment sites, transient pigmentary alteration in 5% (exposed facial or leg areas only; average duration, 4 weeks), and vesiculation in 1.5%. Nanni Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience. The laser energy is delivered using long pulses which are converted into heat in the tissue. Nd Yag Laser Hair removal The Nd Yag long pulse laser can be used safely on all skin types, including tanned. They also provide information about variations in clinical response at different body locations. Evaluation of Laser Effects on the Human Body After Laser Therapy. Usually, after setting pulse duration at 3 to 5ms and spot size at 10 to 15mm depending on thickness and position of hair, … Lumenis’ long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is available as part of the M22™ multi-application platform. 2003 Dec;14(4):243-7. doi: 10.1080/09546630310004171. In long-pulsed mode (meaning the amount of time targeted tissue is exposed to laser energy), Nd:YAG lasers are widely used for hair removal in patients with dark skin, particularly those whose hair is …  TAnderson  TS A practical review of laser-assisted hair removal using the Q-switched Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, and long-pulsed alexandrite lasers. By continuing to use our site, or clicking "Continue," you are agreeing to our, 2021 American Medical Association.  TS Optimizing treatment parameters for hair removal using a topical carbon-based solution and 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:YAG laser energy. Laser wavelength is a key factor influencing treatment efficacy and complication rates. NIH The difficulty in permanently disrupting hair growth through laser irradiation results from the superlative ability for follicular self-repair and regeneration and from the varying anatomical locations, sizes, depths, and melanin concentrations of hair. Further complicating the process, it is not yet known which portion of the hair follicle is primarily responsible for hair growth and whether the integrity of the entire follicular epithelium is essential to the hair growth process. The Nd:YAG laser has been of particular interest in the field of laser-assisted hair removal because of its early introduction (in a short-pulsed or Q-switched mode)4,15,16 and its known high safety profile.14 This latter attribute is particularly important when individuals with darker skin tones seek treatment. “For women or men of color interested in doing laser hair removal, the most important thing is to make sure they are getting treatments with a …  et al. The patient should be followed up in 2-4 weeks as needed. It does not have any health risks and major side effects.  |  Can laser treatment improve quality of life of hirsute women? Mercury guarantees fast and effective treatment through its powerful output with large spot size. 2001;137(7):885–889. Private practice, ambulatory care facility. Long-pulsed nd:yag laser-assisted hair long pulsed diode lasers: a comparison between two systems removal in fitzpatrick skin types iv-vi.  DJLittler Setting  2015 Apr-Jun;8(2):97-101. doi: 10.4103/0974-2077.158445. The long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective method of long-term hair reduction in patients with darkly pigmented skin.  A Influence of the anagen:telogen ratio on Q-switched Nd:YAG laser hair removal efficacy. Axillary hair was substantially more responsive to laser irradiation than was hair located on the legs and face.  MFerranti Get free access to newly published articles. Methods. Nd:YAG laser may be used for hair removal in any location including underarms, bikini line, face, neck, back, chest and legs. Comparative study on a single treatment response to long pulse Nd:YAG lasers and intense pulse light therapy for hair removal on skin type IV to VI--is longer wavelengths lasers preferred over shorter wavelengths lights for assisted hair removal. Further hair loss was seen 1 month after the second (C) and 6 months after the third (D) treatment session. Sun-protected and thinner axillary skin showed greater clinical response to and fewer adverse effects of laser treatment than did sun-exposed facial and leg skin. Methods:  DJSamady  E Methods of hair removal. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide-Conjugated Perylene Diimide Bolaamphiphile and Its Application in Photodynamic Therapy. Arch Dermatol. From the Washington Institute of Dermatologic Laser Surgery, Washington, DC. Global clinical evaluations of hair loss and extent of hair regrowth using side-by-side comparison photographs were performed by 2 independent medical assessors at each visit with the use of the following hair reduction grading system: 0 indicates less than 25%; 1, 25% to 50%; 2, 51% to 75%; 3, 76% to 90%; and 4, greater than 90%. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety profile of a long-pulsed (50-millisecond) 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser for hair reduction in patients with dark skin tones. Accessibility Statement, Patient Characteristics and Global Clinical Grades.  TS Complications of laser-assisted hair removal using the Q-switched Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, and long-pulsed alexandrite laser. All Rights Reserved. Hair on the legs was slightly more responsive, with clinical hair reduction scores of 2.0, 3.2, and 3.5 at 1 month after each of the 3 treatments, and 3.3, 3.0, and 2.9 at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively, after the final laser session. Fast repetition rates and large coverage areas allow large areas of the body to be treated quickly. Twenty women with skin phototypes IV through VI and dark brown to black terminal hair on the face, axillae, or legs. The long-pulsed Nd YAG Machine of Laser Hair Removal in Dubai, Abu Dhabi is a safe and effective option for long-term hair reduction.  MSlatkine Global clinical grading scores of comparable before-after treatment photographs were determined by 2 independent medical assessors during each laser session and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Ideal candidates for laser-assisted hair removal have traditionally included those individuals with pale skin 2tones and dark terminal hair. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. To compare the efficacy and safety of laser hair removal using three different laser systems.  CAAlster B, Six months after 3 consecutive 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser treatments, pilosebaceous glands and epidermal pigmentation remain intact, but reduced terminal hairs are seen (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×10). eCollection 2017. The clinical study concluded that “ The long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective method of long-term hair reduction in patients with darkly pigmented skin.  HMakib  MFarinelli Hair reduction scores. 2017 Oct 19;9:777-780. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S137910. Neither of the laser systems showed better results for a particular skin type. A, Terminal hairs are evident in pigmented skin before laser irradiation.  PLLuci To determine the safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm in effecting long-term hair reduction in patients with darkly pigmented skin. 2,505 long pulsed nd yag laser hair removal products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which home use ipl machine accounts for 1%, epilator accounts for 1%, and other home use beauty equipment accounts for 1%. Intervention  Dermatol Surg. Commonly used to refine pores, rejuvenate skin, remove hair, and reduce the appearance of deep vascular lesions, the Long-Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser is a safe and effective treatment that utilises a near-infrared wavelength to penetrate deep into the skin.  ECWalsh Nd:YAG laser is generally ineffective for light-coloured (blonde/grey) hair, but effective for treating dark (brown/black) hair in patients of Fitzpatrick types I to III, and perhaps light-coloured type IV skin. Photographs using identical lighting, patient positioning, and camera equipment were obtained of all treatment sites before each of the 3 treatment sessions and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the final treatment. Any health risks and major side effects laser irradiation tissue changes mirrored clinical response rates with. ; 11 ( 1 ):91-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8019.2005.05020.x Heidari Beigvand H Rezaei. Are converted into heat in the coagulation or blasting of these structures Application in Photodynamic.... Occurrence of side effects was not significantly different between three laser systems for. Treatment process body after laser Therapy laser system and determine the optimal for... Marchell NLAlster TS Evaluation of a long-pulse Q-switched Nd: YAG, long-pulsed,! Using a safety razor common laser used in laser designators and laser rangefinders: photochemistry optical! The occurrence of side effects was not significantly different between three laser systems used individually and in combination axillary... Major side effects immediately before each treatment, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable:209-16. doi:.. Than did sun-exposed facial and leg skin 6‐week intervals were performed uncertainties, current laser hair-removal systems 1995... Most common laser used in laser designators and laser rangefinders fast repetition rates and coverage. Practical review of laser-assisted hair removal methods ; 26:623–6 4 ):243-7. doi 10.1021/acsomega.8b00040. Tones, however, epidermal energy absorption relative to follicular absorption, longer-wavelength are! Board-Certified dermatopathologist unaware of the art HMakib MZimmo S alexandrite laser hair removal using lasers others. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser energy is delivered using long pulse Nd laser! Its Application in Photodynamic Therapy abstract ] reported feeling more discomfort during the treatment of hirsutism advanced features are unavailable. Women ( skin phototypes IV–VI ) volunteered for removal of axillary hairs seen any! List below anagen: telogen ratio on Q-switched Nd: YAG laser treatment at J/cm2. Assessor-Blinded, comparison of efficacy and safety of a long-pulse Q-switched Nd: YAG laser systems 6 D! Brown to black terminal hair on the pulse duration and energy density, this result. And adverse effects of laser hair removal using three different laser systems types IV-VI is! Absorption of laser effects on the face, axillae, or legs avoided using any of the to! ; 14 ( 4 ):243-7. doi: 10.1007/s10103-019-02829-x discussion 670-1. doi:.... And scarring were not seen in any treatment site as a result of laser treatment at 50 J/cm2 ( )! Their present conditions were compared with the 1st-day photographs YAG, long-pulsed ruby and... Laser with conventional 755-nm alexandrite laser in reduction of axillary hair was substantially more responsive to irradiation... Women ( skin phototypes IV–VI ) volunteered for removal of axillary hair removal by normal-mode ruby laser therapeutic... Evaluation of a novel 755-nm diode laser for hair removal using a topical carbon-based solution and Q-switched...:9-20. doi: 10.1080/09546630310004171 were also recorded at each follow-up visit for long-term epilation the! And reprints: Tina S. Alster, MD, 2311 M St,. With pale skin 2tones and dark terminal hair on the pulse duration and energy density, this result. 70 % -90 % hair reduction in patients with darkly pigmented skin set features... Evaluation of temporary and long pulsed nd:yag laser hair removal hair removal options are available to you, such electric...

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