approaches to creativity in psychology


West and colleagues’ climate model is, in our awareness, the only model focusing on team level climate (Anderson & West, 1998; West, 1990; West & Anderson, 1996). The third component, analytical ability, is often measured by traditional intelligence tests. The first, selective encoding, involves distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information. However, much of human creativity theory can be applied to animal behavior. Geir Kaufmann, in The International Handbook on Innovation, 2003. Finally, organizational creativity is also a function of the interaction between the creative outputs of its component groups and contextual influences (such as organizational climate and culture, reward systems, resources, or the external environment). Selective combination, the second, involves combining bits of relevant information in novel ways. This focus on spontaneous illumination is most obviously present in the rich literature on creative insight, which reveals the ways in which new and useful ideas arise autonomously in the mind (though there is discussion of the role of controlled and volitional thought in insight; see Kounios & Beeman, 2014; Chein & Weisberg, 2014). For any real conceptual progress to occur, existing theories must be continually constrained by more and better data and analyses, and generate new constructs for measurement and analysis in their turn. Measuring creativity by a quotient similar to an IQ was mostly unsuccessful because creativity is a highly abstract concept, there can be no right or wrong answers to a set of questions about creativity. In other words, intrinsic motivation determines the extent to which domain relevant skills and creativity-relevant skills will be fully and appropriately applied towards successful creative performance. Two studies were conducted in which participants' scores on divergent thinking tests were analyzed as a function of performance on a number of measures of executive function (including broad retrieval ability and general fluid intelligence) and answers to a verbal fluency task, in which semantic distance served as a measure of associative ability. Creativity is usually connected to problem solving and cognitive theories of creativity usually focus on the process of problem solving (Runco, 2007, p. 14; Adams et al., 2009, p. 4; Hargadon & Bechky, 2006, p. 495). Moving from the implications of domain specificity for creativity theory to its implications for creativity testing, a domain specific understanding of creativity provides a very direct challenge to existing notions of how to test creativity. In relation to the global organizational environment, James and his colleagues (James & James, 1989) describe four dimensions of global organizational climate, which have been identified across a number of different work contexts: role stress and lack of harmony (including role ambiguity, conflict and overload, subunit conflict, lack of organizational identification, and lack of management concern and awareness). (2014) found that greater functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex (which is linked to executive processing) and the default network (which is linked to associative processing) was associated with higher scores on tests of divergent thinking. People who are able incisively to evaluate their own work may be said to be high in metacognition (which is related to planning, a key component of Luria's model). Our vision was for a dialog between those who study creativity in animals and those who study the same topic in humans. It has a long history of research in many disciplines, and involves a variety of conceptual and methodological approaches. With reference to the evidence indicating a significant relationship between hypomania and creativity cited above, Weisberg conducted an interesting case study of Schumann's mood bipolarity. Dr. Tom Steitz, former Sterling Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at Yale University, spent his career looking at the structure and specific aspects of RNA molecules and how their interactions could help produce antibiotics and ward off diseases. Intelligence would primarily occur at the domain-relevant skill level. An example would be a creative solution to a difficult problem. For example, Allen and Thomas (2011) revisited modern conceptions of Wallas's famous stages of creativity and argued that associative and executive processes are active throughout all stages, with different stages differentially associated with each type of thinking process. West, Claudia A. Sacramento, in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 2012. Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. Weisberg (1994) pointed to an important distinction between productivity and creativity. In this chapter, we review many different ways of measuring creativity. Since this time, things have not slowed down, and the sheer volume of research on creativity continues to increase. (2015) suggest that to “further reconcile the associative and executive theories, a dual-process model may be the best approach” and could “provide a promising approach to understanding the relative contributions of automatic and controlled processes in creative thought” (p. 1195). For this reason, and because creativity theories have historically been one-size-fits-all theories, domain general theories of creativity continue to have great appeal. Central to this ability is being able to redefine problems. Disciplinary perspectives often emerge in opposition to each other, and this can be seen in the individualist and holist approaches to creativity. Most accounts of this finding emphasize the associative organization of information, with more proximal associates becoming active first, followed by more distal creative ideas later. While it is too early to forecast the fate of theories of creativity, and the enterprise of studying creativity more generally, it seems likely that the two will rise or fall together. Creativity training, on the other hand, can accommodate domain specificity of creativity rather easily. Guilford identified only 186 papers directly focused on creativity in his assessment of the literature in the years from 1927 to 1950, but Arons's (1965) review found over 800 records in the mere decade following the address. There has been some empirical work on the role of metacognitive abilities in creativity. Here are the four main approaches to this area of psychology. Creativity testers will necessarily have to determine in which domain(s) of creativity they are interested, because under a domain-specific theory of creativity, general creative thinking skill becomes an empty construct. Think of a time when your creativity was sparked by a conversation with a friend or classmate. Thus in terms of what is happening inside a creative thinker's head, divergent thinking skill may actually be many unrelated, domain specific cognitive skills; but in terms of how psychologists can understand these many diverse skills (viewing divergent thinking from the outside, as it were), divergent thinking is a coherent class of skills that bear a strong family resemblance. There are a lot of definitions for creativity. (p. 16). Yet, before discussing the role of context, we should start by clarifying what we mean by creativity and innovation. The responses can be scored on four dimensions: (a) fluency, the total number of appropriate uses generated; (b) originality, the statistical rarity of the uses given; (c) flexibility, the number of distinct conceptual categories implied by the various uses; and (d) elaboration, the amount of detail given for the generated uses. An original recipe that produces a dish that tastes too terrible to eat cannot be creative. It should be noted that the research evidence pointing toward domain specificity of creativity is fairly new, and, like the research that preceded it, this research may not tell the whole story. Domain-relevant skills include knowledge, technical skills, and specialized talent (i.e., a creative mathematician should know basic algebra and geometry). convergent thinking: the opposite of divergent thinking, the capacity to narrow in on the single “correct” answer or solution to a given question or problem (e.g., giving the right response on an intelligence tests) creativity: ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities. [Image: Simon Hooks]. Major test developers may not be willing to support extensive test development efforts for tests of such limited potential use. Tests of creativity in specific content domains – which might use the consensual assessment technique to evaluate the creativity of products, or might instead find simpler (perhaps paper-and-pencil) techniques for assessing domain specific skills – would still be possible in principle, but they could be of only limited range and applicability. Vosburg (1998b) made similar observations. Because creative ideas are so special, creators who come up with the best ideas are often highly rewarded with fame, fortune, or both. In order to contextualize the importance of climate on organizational creativity and innovation it is useful to look at how this literature evolved. In this work, Mednick argued that creativity could be predicted from associative hierarchies. This staged framework, while focused on how an idea arises unintentionally from consciousness, emphasized focused and controlled thought in the evaluation of the utility of the insight. restructuring; cf. It is interesting to note that the task where positive mood was found to be detrimental is a typical insight problem (the Radiation Problem; Duncker, 1945), held in the classical literature to be a representative indicator of core creative processes in creative problem-solving (e.g. Most common are divergent thinking tests, including the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, although they are not without controversy. Creativity training programs aimed at a particular domain can easily limit their training exercises to ones connected to that domain, while programs aimed at increasing creativity in general – the vast majority of programs – must be careful not to limit their training exercises to just one or a few content domains. This research often took the form of correlational studies, whereby certain traits and tendencies purported to correlate with creativity or the creative person were teased out and differentiated from traits and tendencies not … Baer has proposed a divergent thinking metatheory of creativity that, although encompassing all domains of creativity in a single conceptual scheme, nonetheless takes into account the domain specificity of creativity. For example, using a brick as a paperweight represents a different conceptual category that using its volume to conserve water in a toilet tank. Finally, we have to assume that if an idea scores zero on any one criterion then it must have zero creativity as well. We sought a wide variety of contributors and commenters, both in terms of fields (we span psychology, biology, neuroscience, engineering, business, ecology, and education) and location (the contributors come from 12 countries). Individual perceptions of the work environment are usually termed psychological climate, and, when shared to a level sufficient for aggregation to the group or organizational level, are labelled group or organizational climate. For example, analyses of scientific and artistic achievements suggest that the median-rated creativity of work in a domain tends to fall toward the lower end of the distribution and the upper - high creativity - tail extends quite far. 39). Here, the participant is asked to generate alternative uses for a common object, such as a brick. Over the past 35 years, examination of social and environmental influences on creativity has become increasingly vigorous, with broad implications for the psychology of human performance, and with applications to education, business, and beyond. The second criterion is usefulness. Other theories emphasize a confluence of different elements and include intellectual and cognitive abilities in the equation. Einstein’s relativity theory was not a step-by-step deduction from classical physics but rather the theory was built upon a new foundation that challenged the very basis of traditional physics.When applying these three criteria, it is critical to recognize that originality, usefulness, and surprise are all quantitative rather than qualitative attributes of an idea. On lifespan creativity rooted in the interplay between the prefrontal cortex, other regions of the person... Other hand, can accommodate domain specificity and generality are true, each in part and in its way. Complement each other in accounting for diverse aspects of creativity diverse teams, perhaps different. Rat consists of items that require the respondent to identify a word that can be associated with.... ), R.J. Sternberg, J.C. Kaufman, in creativity domain specific or... Monkey ” and task motivation transfer task was obtained skills, creativity-relevant skills, and convergent thinking, which be! 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