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The 12 Testaments of the Patriarchs (part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew Canon) are also included and translated from their original Hebrew text. The Greek Bible--the Septuagint--is that of the Jews in Egypt and of those found in other Greek-speaking countries. The fact that the Apocrypha is absent from the Hebrew canon must have had some influence on the minds of the Reformers. They are all of them apocalypses designated apocrypha in accordance with early usage. This restricted sense of the word cannot be traced farther back than the beginning of the Reformation. Originally, the term was applied to sacred books whose contents were too exalted to be made available to the general public. The Septuagint (which means "seventy") is a Greek-based version of the Hebrew-based Old Testament. It is not clear why the term was chosen. Lucian (died 312; see Vit. ), (2) Views of Zahn, Schurer, Porter, etc. But there is a "New" as well as an "Old" Testament Apocrypha consisting of gospels, epistles, etc. Books of the Apocrypha. Second Maccabees is more openly theological and affirms such ideas as the glories of martyrdom, the sufferings of the martyr as being expiatory for the sins of the nation, the resurrection of the body, prayer for the dead, and the intercession of the saints. In general it may be said that the western church did not adopt the triple division of sacred books prevalent in the eastern church. The author praises and personifies (cf. Christians tod… Tobit, purportedly from the time of the Assyrian exile, combines the themes of quest, romance, and overcoming the demonic in a story of God's healing of his faithful servant Tobit and deliverance of the unfortunate widow Sarah. It is significant of the original character of the religion of Israel that no one has been able to point to a Hebrew word corresponding to esoteric (see below). Article Images Copyright © 2021 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. The Wisdom of Solomon; VII. verb) 1. Nonetheless, some of these books were widely used by Christians throughout the Middle Ages and have left their mark on the church. From the Dead Sea Scrolls we know that Psalm 151, surviving in Greek, is actually a combination of two separate Psalms in Hebrew (sometimes called 151a and 151b). Apocrypha. The two classes of doctrines and rites--they were mainly the latter--were designated respectively "exoteric" and "esoteric." At an early date they were translated into Greek and in this form came to be used by Christians as early as the end of the first century a.d. Critical editions of the Apocrypha have been issued by A. Fabricius (Hamburg, 1722-23); Apel (ib 1804) and a very valuable edition by O. T. Fritzsche (Leipzig, 1871) which includes the Latin version of the Apocalyptic Esdras--without the missing fragment. However, a second set of booklets had been assembled through the years, and these were given the name Apocrypha (meaning “hidden”). The rise of this conception in the eastern church is easily understood. This Apocrypha translation is based on the original 1611 King James Version with all names restored to its original Hebrew. Protestants refer to these books as apocrypha (meaning spurious, hidden, obscure), but Catholics reject that phrasing. Roman Catholic Church (Meaning that they consider them parts of the canon of scripture.) may be as late as that. two classes of hearers and readers are implied all through, though it is a pity that more of the literature bearing on the question has not been preserved. The Apocrypha: • SOME ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE CANONICITY OF THE APOCRYPHA •They are not, and have never been, in the Jewish canon (written in Greek not Hebrew) •None of the Apocrypha claim inspiration or divine authority. Second Esdras, purportedly composed by Ezra, was written in response to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in a.d. 70. Three features in these books stand out. The books of the Apocrypha proper may be thus classified: (c) Additions to Daniel (nos. The Additions to Daniel have a less unified purpose. The nation of Israel treated the Apocrypha / Deuterocanonical books with respect, but never accepted them as true books of the Hebrew Bible. Among the Buddhists the Samga forms a close society open originally to monks or bhikhus admitted only after a most rigid examination; but in later years nuns (bhikshunis) also have been allowed admission, though in their case too after careful testing. (see The Century Bible, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, 294f). Origen (died 253) held that we ought to discriminate between books called "apocryphal," some such having to be firmly rejected as teaching what is contrary to the Scriptures. Greek: apo—“sprung from, descended from” + kryptein—“hidden; obscure, hard to understand,” thus of hidden or unknown authorship I n modern times, some have deceptively referred to these many books as “the Lost Books of the Bible.” First Esdras, for example, is primarily a retelling of the material found in 2 Chronicles 35:1-36:23, Ezra, and Nehemiah 7:6-8:12; Psalm 151 purports to be an additional psalm of David. But how comes it to be that the Greek Old Testament is more extensive than the Hebrew Old Testament? He was followed in this by Rufinus (died circa 410), in turns Jerome's friend and adversary, as he had been anticipated by Irenaeus. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. The 12 Testaments of the Patriarchs (part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew Canon) are also included and translated from their original Hebrew text. J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha; J. K. Elliott, ed., The Apocryphal New Testament; E. Hennecke and W. Schneemelcher, eds., New Testament Apocrypha; B. M. Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha; G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah; E. Schrer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ; H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament; M. E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period. Jewish teacher named Jesus ben Sira. The early Christian church debated the status of the Apocrypha / Deuterocanonicals, but few early Christians believed they belonged in the canon of Scripture. All rights reserved. 3. apocrypha Writings or statements of questionable authorship or authenticity. John Wycliffe (died 1384) puts the Apocrypha together at the end of the Old Testament and the same course was taken by Luther (1546) in his great German and by Miles Coverdale (died 1568) in his English translation. The Jews in the early Christian centuries had really two Bibles: (1) There was the Hebrew Bible which does not include the Apocrypha, and which circulated in Palestine and Babylon; (2) there was the Greek version (Septuagint) used by Greek-speaking Jews everywhere. Affirming the immortality of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the author seeks to demonstrate that inspired reason, guided by the Law, is supreme ruler over the passions. ), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc. apocryphal definition: 1. 2 Col 12:2 ). For this reason they are typically printed in a third section of the Bible apart from the Old and New Testaments. This is not the original or the correct sense of the word, as will be shown, but it is that which it bears almost exclusively in modern speech. Apocrypha. When among the Jews there arose a literature of oral tradition it was natural to apply to this last the Greek notion of esoteric, especially as this class of literature was more highly esteemed in many Jewish circles than the Old Testament Scriptures themselves. What they did produce was explanatory of what had been written and practical. {1} They are also known as "Deuterocanonical" writings, meaning "second canon," which signifies that they are important but not on par with the canon. The value and canonical status of the deuterocanonical books or Apocrypha (literally meaning “things that are hidden”) has been a point of significant contention between Protestants and Roman Catholics since the time of the Reformation. Apocrypha definition: the 14 books included as an appendix to the Old Testament in the Septuagint and the... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". Susanna (chapter 13 of the Greek Daniel) is a delightful little story affirming God's vindication of those who hope in him, and Bel and the Dragon (chapter 14 of the Greek Daniel) exposes the folly of idolatry. This movement among Greek Christians was greatly aided by Gnostic sects and the esoteric literature to which they gave rise. noun the Apocrypha (functioning as singular or plural) the 14 books included as an appendix to the Old Testament in the Septuagint and the Vulgate but not included in the Hebrew canon. It might therefore have been expected that the Old Testament canon of the Reformers would agree in extent with that of the Jews and not with that of the Greek and Latin Christians. in the sense "esoteric"? WORDS & MEANINGS 1. It refers to the works which were written for an inner circle of people, sometimes a heretical sect. The Greek Orthodox Church adds 1 Esdras, Psalm 151, the Prayer of Manasseh, and 3 Maccabees, with 4 Maccabees in an appendix. Many of them read into the canonical writings mystic meanings, and embodied those meanings in special books, these last becoming esoteric literature in themselves: and as in the case of apocalyptic writings, this esoteric literature was more revered than the Bible itself. Is it quite certain that there is no Hebrew word or expression corresponding exactly to the word "apocrypha" as first used by Christian writers, i.e. Yet Augustine (died 430; De Civitale Dei, XV, 23) explained the "apocrypha" as denoting obscurity of origin or authorship, and this sense of the word became the prevailing one in the West. The word “apocrypha” comes from the Greek word meaning "hidden" or "secret." Now it was felt that many if not most of the religious writings which came in the end of the 2nd century to be called "apocryphal" in a disparaging sense had their origin among heretical sects like the Gnostics, and that they had never commanded the approval of the great bulk of the churches. They were eventually included in Christian copies of the Greek Old Testament and, later, the Latin Vulgate. More interesting are the Additions to Esther. In Hellenistic Greek as represented by the Septuagint and the New Testament there is no essential departure from classical usage. In the Middle Ages, under the influence of Reuchlin (died 1532)--great scholar and Reformer--Hebrew came to be studied and the Old Testament read in its original language. "Apocrypha" comes from the Greek word apokrypha [ajpovkrufo"], which means "things that are hidden, secret." In the anonymous, "List of Sixty," which hails from the 7th century, we have represented probably the attitude of the eastern church. Land (of Israel) Last Day (s), Latter Days, Last Times. The books of the Apocrypha were regarded by Jewish sages as Sefarim hizonim, extraneous books, and were not part of the Hebrew canon (officially accepted scriptures). YHWH/YHVH AND AHAYAH (THE ILLUMINATI KNOWS THAT THE NAME OF THE MOST HIGH IS “AHAYAH”) YHWH/YHVH/IHVH/JHVH - ORIGIN (V = U), (UV = W), (I = J), (J SUBSTITUTE for Y), the name YHWH/JHVH was injected into the text of the Old Testament by the Pharisees and others who practiced Babylonian… This Apocrypha translation in paperback is based on the original 1611 King James Version with all names restored to its original Hebrew. from Heb. ), (3) "Spurious" Books (Athanasius, Nicephorus, etc. These all contain some apocalyptic material, perhaps Jewish. Ball. Enoch, Abraham, Moses, etc.). The canonical Book of Daniel and many of the Psalms are of later date than Sirach and 1 Esdras, and there are cogent reasons for giving the canonical Esther a later date than any of the books named and perhaps than Judith as well (see, however, \DANIEL\; \ESTHER\). occurs in the above phrase means "to store away," "to remove from view"--of things in themselves sacred or precious. The canon of the Church included the books which are contained in the Greek Bible but not in the Hebrew (see the list below, § III. They don’t say “The word of the Lord came to me…” •Many of the Apocryphal books teach heresy, A brief statement as to the doctrine in early Greek philosophy will be found helpful at this point. Several of these writings are tied closely to Old Testament books. The gospel was preached in its first days to the poor and ignorant, and the reading and studying of the sacred Scriptures have been urged by the churches (with some exceptions) upon the public at large. First Maccabees, the longest and most detailed account, is an especially important historical source for the revolt. 1070). 5), the limitations of human understanding, the signs of the end, the final judgment, the intermediate state between death and the final judgment, the destruction of the Roman Empire, and the coming Messiah. Since the Protestant canon consists of but 57 books it will be seen that in this list books outside our canon are included. Numbers 9-11 in the above enumeration are additions made in the Greek Septuagint and Vulgate versions of Daniel to the book as found in the Massoretic Text. But a general statement regarding the extreme limits between which all the books were completed may safely be made. Tobias/Tobit In this sense Gregory of Nyssa (died 395; De Ordin., II, 44) and Epiphanius (died 403; Haeres, 51 3) speak of the Apocalypse of John as "apocryphal.". Greek: apo—“sprung from, descended from” + kryptein—“hidden; obscure, hard to understand,” thus of hidden or unknown authorship I n modern times, some have deceptively referred to these many books as “the Lost Books of the Bible.” (4) By the Protestant Reformers the term "apocrypha" ("apocryphal" "books" being understood) came to stand for what is now called the "Old Testament Apocrypha." Modern scholars agree that in its present form this book arose in the reign of Domitian 81-96 AD. They have … The Protestant Reformers, while affirming the unique authority of the Hebrew canon, allowed that the books of the Apocrypha were useful for reading. Of this large number of sacred books 24 were to be published openly, for the unworthy as well as the worthy, these 24 books representing undoubtedly the books of the Hebrew Old Testament. 9-11 in the above list); (e) The Epistle of Jeremy (usually appended to Baruch); (a) Book of Baruch (sometimes classed with prophetic books, sometimes with Apocalypses); (b) Tobit; (c) Judith. (3) Apocryphal books, the names of which are as follows: (l) The Apocalypse of Zephaniah (see number 9 of the Old Testament Apocrypha books mentioned in the Chronography of Nicephorus); (q) The Itinerary and Teaching of the Apostles; The greater number of these books come under the designation "apocryphal" in the early sense of "apocalyptic," but by this time the word had taken on a lower meaning, namely, books not good for even private reading. (see below, § III. Others fill in gaps in the New Testament Gospels, usually with a heightened sense of the miraculous. The Apocrypha . In the last passage Bishop Lightfoot thought we have in the word apokruphoi (treasures of Christ hidden) an allusion to the vaunted esoteric knowledge of the false teachers, as if Paul meant to say that it is in Christ alone we have true wisdom and knowledge and not in the secret books of these teachers. It will be seen from what has been said that notwithstanding the favorable attitude toward it of the eastern and western churches, from the earliest times, our Apocrypha was regarded with more or less suspicion, and the suspicion would be strengthened by the general antagonism toward it. The western church did not accept Jerome's definition of apocrypha, but retained the word in its original meaning, though great confusion prevailed. In the eastern and western churches under the influence of the Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Vulgate) versions the books of the Apocrypha formed an integral part of the canon and were scattered throughout the Old Testament, they being placed generally near books with which they have affinity. Originally, the term was reserved for books with content considered too sacred and grand to make accessible to the general public. ), (2) Change to "Religious" Books (Origen, etc. The authors of these so-called apocryphal books being unknown, it was sought to gain respect for these writers by tacking onto them well-known names, so that, particularly in the western church, "apocryphal" came to be almost synonymous with "pseudepigraphical." This version, which became known as the Vulgate, eventually became the official version of the Roman Church and became the Bible used in the Western Church for the next thousand years. The Gospel of Peter presents, after an otherwise straightforward account of the crucifixion, a vivid narration of the resurrection of Jesus: two angels come down from heaven, enter the tomb, and exit with Jesus, followed by a talking Cross. (1) "Esoteric" Literature (Clement of Alexandria, etc.). The term "apocrypha" comes from the Greek word meaning "hidden" or "secret." When devotees of Greek philosophy accepted the Christian faith it was natural for them to look at the new religion through the medium of the old philosophy. Bodenstein of Carlstadt, usually called Carlstadt (died 1541), an early Reformer, though Luther's bitter personal opponent, was the first modern scholar to define "Apocrypha" quite clearly as writings excluded from the canon, whether or not the true authors of the books are known, in this, going back to Jerome's position. Perhaps if the Greek original of this book had been preserved the word "apocrypha" would have been found as an epithetic attached to the 70 books. Jer 36:4-8 ), extols the virtues of Wisdom, which is identified with the Law. But this usage is confined to Protestants, since in the eastern church and in the Roman branch of the western church the Old Testament Apocrypha is as much an integral part of the canon as Genesis or Kings or Psalms or Isaiah. See more. In the western church the word apocrypha and the corresponding adjective had a somewhat different history. These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the Christian era. These writings give intimations regarding the future, the ultimate triumph of the kingdom of God, etc., beyond, it was thought, human discovery and also beyond the intelligence of the uninitiated. The Septuagint is the first version of the Old Testament that contained the books of the Apocrypha. Ed. In the Septuagint (or rather Theodotion's version) of Daniel 11:43 it stands for "hidden" as applied to gold and silver stores. The oldest apocryphal book is Sirach, which in its original Hebrew form belongs to between 190-170 BC. Meaning of Apocrypha. The book also contains COLOR CODED text to aid the reader in understanding the true Hebrew meanings … But with the destruction of the sanctuary and the disbanding of its officials it was needful to find some fresh binding and directing agency and this was found in the collection of sacred writings known by us as the Old Testament. Oriental and especially Greek Christianity tended to give to philosophy the place which the New Testament and western Christianity assign the Old Testament. Although the literature is too vast and varied to summarize here, many Pseudepigrapha contain visionary journeys through heaven (or a series of heavens) and hell, an increased interest in angels and demons, speculations on the origins of sin and the nature of the final judgment, various expectations of a Messiah, predictions of the end of time, and ethical exhortations. Though it is generally true that the Apocrypha is the excess of the Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Jerome, Vulgate) over the Hebrew Bibles (the Masoretic Text), the statement needs qualification. For detailed information see under the several books. Even Protestant Bibles up to 1827 included the Apocrypha, but as one collection of distinct writings at the end of the Old Testament. In the New Testament the word occurs but thrice, namely, Mark 4:22 and the parallel Luke 8:17; Colossians 2:3. R. H. Charles, our greatest living authority on the Apocalyptic and Apocryphal writings, embraces the following under the heading "Hellenistic Jewish Literature," the rest coming under the heading "Palestinian Jewish Literature" (Enc Brit, 11th edition, II, 177): The bulk of the Apocrypha was written originally in the Greek language and existed at the first in that language alone. It is said that Mohammed obtained his ideas of Christ entirely from these spurious gospels.--ED. It must be borne in mind that the word apocrypha is really a Greek adjective in the neuter plural, denoting strictly "things hidden." Then there is added a list of miscellaneous books condemned as heretical, including even the works of Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Eusebius, these works being all branded as "apocryphal." 1 Esdras. However, a second set of booklets had been assembled through the years, and these were given the name Apocrypha (meaning “hidden”). Fourth Maccabees, an imaginative elaboration on the martyrdoms in 2 Maccabees, is a distinctive melding of Greek and Jewish ideas. Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under CANON. Nothing in the English language can be compared with the works edited by Kautzsch and Hennecke in either scholarship or usefulness. 26) followed by many others referred the distinction to Aristotle, but as modern scholars agree, wrongly, for the exoterikoi logoi, of that philosopher denote popular treatises. Dr. Edgar Hennecke has edited a similar work on the New Testament Apocrypha. The best editions of the Septuagint are those by Tischendorf revised by E. Nestle (1887); and Swete (1895-99 and later editions). From the Dead Sea Scrolls we know that Psalm 151, surviving in Greek, is actually a combination of two separate Psalms in Hebrew (sometimes called 151a and 151b). Gradually, the term "apocrypha" took on a disparaging connotation, since the orthodoxy of these hidden books was often questionable. In a similar way there grew up among the Jews side by side with the written law an oral law containing the teaching of the rabbis and regarded as more sacred and authoritative than the writings they profess to expound. Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it. It includes significant discussions on the nature of sin and its connection with Adam (cf. The primary meaning of apocrypha, "hidden, secret," seems, toward the close of the second century to have been associated with the signification "spurious," and ultimately to have settled down into the latter. In critical works of the present day it is customary to speak of the collection of writings now in view as "the Old Testament Apocrypha," because many of the books at least were written in Hebrew, the language of the Old Testament, and because all of them are much more closely allied to the Old Testament than to the New Testament. Here. Affirmations, among other things, of the preexistence and immortality of the soul indicate a considerable degree of Greek influence upon the author. For monographs on the several books of the Apocrypha or discussing special points, see the special articles. Value of apocrypha in Gematria is 663, Online Gematria Calculator with same phrases values search and words. The remaining 70 were to be kept for the exclusive use of the "wise among the people": i.e. The Apocrypha include the following books and parts of books: First and Second Esdras Esdras [Gr. Fur. But the evidence is against so early a use of the term in this--soon to be its prevailing--sense. It testifies to a developing demonology and angelology within Judaism, and emphasizes the importance of charitable deeds, containing some striking parallels to the ethical teaching in the New Testament, including a negative form of the Golden Rule (cf. This was in part because the Apocrypha contained material which supported certain Catholic doctrines, such as purgatory, praying for the dead, and the 2 Maccabees. The Prayer of Manasses king of Judah; XIII. Notwithstanding the doubt which Ryle (Canon of the Old Testament, 156) casts on the matter, all the evidence goes to show that the Septuagint and therefore the other great Greek versions included the Apocrypha from the first onward. "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not.

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